THE PERSO-AFGHAN QUESTION 443 young Kajar Khan known as the Salar, son of the Asaf- u-Dola, had rebelled. He had induced many of the chiefs of Khorasan to join him, but they deserted and he was forced to seek refuge among the Turkoman together with Jafar Kuli Khan, chief of Bujnurd. Shortly after- wards the two rebels returned to Khorasan and reoccupied Bujnurd. Again they were attacked and again they fled, Jafar Kuli Khan taking refuge on this occasion with Yar Mohamed Khan of Herat. The death of Mohamed Shah gave the Pretender his chance, and before long, owing to hatred of the Turks, almost all the chiefs of Khorasan had joined the young Khan, whose personality was attractive and courage un- doubted. Yar Mohamed Khan brought two thousand sowars to Meshed as a reinforcement for Hamza Mirza, the Persian Governor-General, who had promised him twenty guns and two frontier posts in return for his assistance. But the forces of the Salar were too strong, and Meshed was evacuated, the Governor-General retiring in the direction of the Afghan frontier. Meanwhile a force of six thousand infantry under Sultan Murad Mirza reached Khorasan from Teheran and, mainly owing to the desertion of the Bujnurd chief, the Salar was driven to shut himself up in Meshed, where he was besieged for eighteen months. Finally the citizens of the Sacred City entered into negotiations with the besiegers, and sur- rendered Meshed and the Salar. The Pretender was tortured in barbarous fashion to make him reveal his treasure, and was then strangled. He was buried in the shrine of Khoja Rabi, close to the city. The Bab.—Among the latest religions to which Asia has given birth is that of the Bab. Its founder, Sayyid AH Mohamed,1 born in 1820, was the son of a grocer of Shiraz, who evincing a religious disposition was sent to Kerbela, where he studied at the feet of celebrated doctors of law and gained distinction for the austerities he practised and for his love of learning. At the age of 1 These sections are based on The Episode of tie Bab, The New History of the Bab, and the article in the Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics: in each case the author is Prof. E. G. Browne. A brief account of the sect is also given in The Sword of Islam by Sir A, Wollaston.